August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2006). Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Charged with identifying, assessing, and synthesizing research on the education of language-minority children and youth in regards to their attainment of literacy, the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth shares its findings in this report. The report is organized around five specific themes: Development of Literacy in Second-Language Learners; Cross-linguistic Relationships in Second-Language Learners; Sociocultural Contexts and Literacy Development; Educating Language-Minority Students: Instruction and Professional Development; and Student Assessment.
Blachowicz, C., & Fisher, P. (2008). Attentional vocabulary instruction: Read-alouds, word play, and other motivating strategies for fostering informal word learning. In A. E. Farstrup & S.J. Samuels (Eds.), What research has to say about vocabulary instruction (pp. 32-55). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
In this chapter, the authors examine the research base for two modes of informal word learning vocabulary they consider outside of traditional explicit or direct instruction: read alouds and word play. “Attentional” instruction is planned instruction with forethought and follow-through, but it is not considered formal instruction. It is use of opportunities to infuse learning throughout the school day in the many and varied experiences of the students.
Blachowicz, C. L. Z., & Fisher, P. J. (2011). Best practices in teaching vocabulary revisited. In L. Morrow & L. Gambrell (eds.), Best practices in literacy instruction (4th ed., pp. 224-249). New York: Guilford, 224-249.
In this chapter, the authors recognize that vocabulary instruction occurs daily in classrooms at various levels and for a variety of purposes. With this consideration, they offer a set of evidence-based guidelines for vocabulary instruction to assist teachers in meeting the needs of a growing number of diverse learners.
Beck, I. L., & M. G. McKeown. (2001). Text talk: Capturing the benefits of read-aloud experiences for young children. The Reading Teacher, 55, 10-20.
Through their research into reading aloud in kindergarten and first grade classrooms, Isabel Beck and Margaret McKeown determined that the most effective use of the practice of reading aloud occurs when students engage in conversations about the ideas presented in the text. Too often, student interactions are limited to clarifying content or vocabulary, or discrete details. In this article, Beck and McKeown present a model of open-ended questions that lead students to more elaborate responses as they construct meaning.
Calderon, M. (2009). Language, literacy and knowledge for EAL pupils. Better: Evidence-based Education, 1(1), 14-15.
While English as an Additional Language (EAL) students benefit and learn from basic effective reading practices used for mainstream students, there are several practices that support the specific language and literacy needs of these students. The author of this article shares why partner reading, teacher modeling through thinking aloud, extensive and intensive vocabulary instruction, and extended periods of learning time support successful literacy development. Included in this article are recommendations for instructional strategies and a step-by-step process for introducing new vocabulary.
Cunningham, A. E. (2005). Vocabulary growth through independent reading and reading aloud to children. In E. H. Hiebert & Y. M. Kamil (Eds.), Teaching and learning vocabulary: Bringing research to practice (pp. 45-68). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Reading aloud to young nonreaders or emergent readers offers enough of a language challenge to extend the vocabulary learning opportunities beyond every day conversational word learning episodes. Reading from expository and narrative texts, discussing new and interesting words, and analyzing words creates rich vocabulary learning. Discussing difficult and unknown words prior to reading increases comprehension and enjoyment of stories. Independent reading supports learning to read as well as reading to learn. Independent reading aids all students and supports closing the gap in achievement.
Derewianka, B. (1990). Exploring how texts work. Australia: Primary English Teaching Association.
This book is based on a project to introduce genre based writing in the classroom. The project included several leaders in the field of functional grammar: M. Halliday, J. Martin, F. Christie, and others whose professional work is focused on developing a functional model of language for schools and increasing knowledge about text for normal classroom practice.
Derewianka, B. (2010, July). Forcing grammar out of the closet [Power-PointSlides]. Keynote Presentation at the World Reading Congress, Auckland, NZ.
Contemporary research methods have identified a handful of grammar errors made consistently by students, most of them in speaking. Traditional instruction in grammar has made little to no difference correcting these errors. In this keynote presentation, B. Derewianka explained and supported the reasoning that functional grammar will better meet the students’ needs to understand how language. In the case study presented, Ms. Derewianka showed how students built their capacity to make effective choices regarding language. As a result, the students created texts that were meaningful and matched their purposes.
Farstrup, A. E., & Samuels, S. J., Eds. (2008). What research has to say about vocabulary instruction. Newark: International Reading Association.
This collection of writing from various researchers in literacy offers a variety of approaches for vocabulary instruction that is informed by evidence based research and practical classroom experience. The editors claim the purpose of this text is to give teachers instructional choices for effective vocabulary instruction appropriate to their contexts and the needs of their students.
Fernald, A., & Weisleder, A. (2011). Early language experience is vital to developing fluency in understanding. In S. B. Neumann and D. K. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (pp. 3-19). New York: Guilford Press.
In this first chapter of the handbook, the authors discuss the tensions that have surrounded the discussion of social and economic class upon language development. They summarize and respond to the current research that shows a connection between how well children relate sounds to meaning and their later language growth and the implications this research has upon early intervention.
Halliday, M. A. K. (1978). Language as social semiotic. London: Edward Arnold.
In this seminal writing, Professor Michael Halliday explains Systemic Functional Linguistics, an approach that views language as a network of systems that function to give choices in how to make meaning in the context of interpersonal relationships and culture.
Harris, J., Golinkoff, R., & Hirsh-Pasek, K. (2011). Lessons from the crib for the classroom: How children really learn vocabulary. In S. B. Neuman and D. K. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (pp. 49-65). New York: Guilford Press.
In this chapter, the authors trace the early emergence of language with an emphasis on vocabulary. They present six principles that determine the rate of acquisition of new words, arguing that more playful approaches to vocabulary learning are more successful for emergent learners than direct instructional approaches.
Hirsh-Pasek, K., Golinkoff, R. M., Berk, I. E., & Singer, D. G. (2009). A mandate for playful learning in preschool: Presenting the evidence. New York: Oxford University Press.
Playful learning suggests a position grounded in reconciliation between academics and play as a means to support high quality preschool education. Research reviewed in A Mandate for Playful Learning in Preschool (Hirsh-Pasek, Golinkoff, Berk, & Singer, 2009) offers the premise that both academic and social learning are enhanced by using playful learning pedagogy and instructional strategies.
Hughes, A. (2011). Teaching reading in English as a foreign language to young learners: A global perspective. In S. J. Samuels & A. E. Farstrup (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction (4th ed., pp. 315-358). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Teaching grapho-phonics, syntax, and lexical cueing system skills must be balanced with deep structure instruction in the TEYL (Teaching English to Young Learners) classroom. Supportive classroom environments for teaching reading in the target language must include instruction operating in the students’ zone of proximal development, scaffolding, and interaction with English texts. Interactive reading and the use of many different reading materials are recommended.
Neuman, S. B., & Dickinson, D. K. (2011). Handbook of early literacy research. New York: Guilford Press.
This book connects the relationship between oral language and literacy development in diverse populations. Addressing professional development for early childhood teachers as critical to bring effective early childhood practices to scale, Neumann and Dickinson show the way to build new understandings of how children puzzle through the elements of language.
Pollard-Durodola, S. D., Gonzalez, J. E., Simmons, D. C., Davis, M. J., Simmons, L., & Nava-Walichowski, M. (2011). Using knowledge networks to develop preschoolers' content vocabulary. The Reading Teacher, 65(4), 265-274.
This article explains how to use shared reading for building conceptual knowledge and vocabulary development in early literacy. The authors focus on three research-based principles: building vocabulary through connected text on a concept; using shared reading of connected narrative and informational text to provide multiple exposures to content vocabulary; and providing opportunities for conversation about connections between words and concepts to build oral language.
Strong, R. W., Silver, H. F., & Perini, M. (2001). Teaching what matters most. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Drawing from 10 years of research and working in 300 schools, Silver, Strong, and Perini share four standards designed to help students meet district, state, and region standards. These standards include: rigor, thought, diversity, and authenticity.
Whitehurst, G.J., Epstein, J. N., Angell, A. L., Payne, A. C., Crone, D. A., & Fischel, J. E. (1994). Outcomes of an emergent literacy intervention in Head Start. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(4), 542-555.
“Dialogic Reading" is an interactive shared reading practice designed to enhance young children's language and literacy skills during a picture book read aloud. In this article, Whitehurst and colleagues describe the positive outcomes of dialogic reading upon the oral language of four year olds in four Head Start programs in the state of New York.